# Exercise Interlude 1.2

## Analysis

### Exercise A Diatonic vs. chromatic half steps

• Identify whether the half steps below are diatonic (D) or chromatic (C).
• Then, convert each half step, re-notating a chromatic half step as a diatonic half step, and vice versa. For example, given the chromatic half step F and F, you would notate the diatonic half step as F and E.

## Singing

### Exercise B Singing scales

In a comfortable register, be able to sing a one-octave major scale beginning on any given pitch in both ascending and descending forms. Use scale degree numbers or fixed do solfège. Note that if you sing using solfège, there are two systems:

System #1: movable do solfège (the syllable names are fixed according to their function within a key: do always = scale degree 1, re always = scale degree 2, etc.)

System #2: fixed do solfège (the syllable names are fixed according to their pitch names: do always = C (and C and C), re always = D (and D and D♯), etc. Fixed-do solfège and scale degree numbers are the two systems used at the Eastman School.

### Exercise C Singing scale fragments

Be able to sing any three- to five-note stepwise fragment from any major scale using pitch names. You will be given 1^ each time. For example, given the instruction to sing 3^-2^-1^ in the key of B major, you would hear the pitch B, and then you would sing "D-C-B", each note being a whole step from the other. Below are sample patterns to sing:

 1. in G major, sing 5^ - 4^ - 3^ - 2^ - 1^ 2. in A major, sing 7^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^ 3. in F major, sing 6^ - 5^ - 4^ - 3^ 4. in C major, sing 6^ - 5^ - 4^ - 3^ 5. in D major, sing 5^ - 6^ - 7^ - 1^ 6. in E major, sing 8^ - 7^ - 6^ - 5^

### Exercise D Scale degree patterns

Sing the following scale-degree fragments from any given pitch in the major mode.

 1. 1^ - 2^ - 3^ 2. 1^ - 7^ - 1^ 3. 1^- 3^ - 5^ - 1^ 4. 1^ - 2^ - 3^ - 7^ - 1^ 5. 5^ - 4^ - 3^ - 1^ - 6^ - 5^ 6. 3^ - 2^ - 1^ - 5^ 7. 3^ - 1^ - 4^ - 5^ - 1^

### Exercise E Scales: Pattern continuation

Study the scale-degree patterns below and continue them until you return to the tonic. Sing or play on your instrument in the major mode. Feel free to make up some of your own.

 Scale degree numbers: 1. 1^ - 2^ - 3^, 2^ - 3^ - 4^, 3^ - 4^ - 5^, … 2. 1^ - 7^ - 1^, 2^ - 1^ - 2^, 3^ - 2^ - 3^, … 3. 1^ - 7^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^, 2^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^ - 4^, … 4. 1^ - 3^ - 2^ - 1^, 2^ - 4^ - 3^ - 2^, 3^ - 5^, …

### Exercise F Singing major mode scale fragments

Be able to sing any three- to five-note fragment from any major scale using pitch names. You will be given 1^ each time. For example, given the instruction to sing 1^-2^-4^-3^ in the key of B major, you would hear B and then you would sing "B-C-E-D". Below are sample patterns to sing:

 1. in C major, sing 1^ - 4^ - 3^ 2. in D major, sing 1^ - 7^ - 1^ - 3^ 3. In A major, sing 1^ - 3^ - 5^ - 6^ - 5^ 4. in B major, sing 1^ - 3^ - 1^ - 7^ - 6^ - 5^ 5. in E major, sing 1^ - 5^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^ 6. in B♭ major, sing 3^ - 5^ - 1^ - 4^ - 3^

### Exercise G Sight Singing Paradigms

Sing the following short models in D major using two systems: scale degree numbers and fixed-do solfège.

### Exercise H Sight Singing

Using scale degree numbers and then fixed-do solfège, sing the following short major mode melodic fragments in a comfortable register. Follow this procedure before you sing:

• determine the key

• "scan" the melody, looking for the following:

1. literal repetitions of patterns (e.g., scale degrees 1-7-1-3-5-1-7-1-3-5)
2. modified repetitions of patterns (e.g., scale degrees1-2-3,2-3-4,3-4-5)
• give yourself scale degree 1, then sing 1^-3^-5^ before you sight sing the fragment.

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## Playing on the Keyboard and Your Instrument

### Exercise I Half and Whole Steps

Play half and whole steps above and below the following pitches: D, G, F, B, A, E, B, C.

Give yourself the starting pitch and sing half and whole steps above and below those pitches. In order to become fluent with this task and to sing in tune, view the given pitch as a scale degree within a key. For example, in order to sing a half step above D, consider D to be 7^ in the key of E, and resolve this leading tone to 8^, which is E. Similarly, in order to sing a whole step below D, consider D to be 2^ in C major and then fall to 1^ , which is C.

### Exercise J Scales

We will use the "tetrachordal" fingering for scales: the four fingers of your left hand (beginning with the smallest finger (finger numbers 5–4–3–2)) will play the first four notes of a scale (referred to as the first tetrachord) and the four fingers of your right hand will play the next four notes of the scale beginning with the index finger (finger numbers 2–3–4–5). Below is an illustration in D major:

 LH: D E F♯ G RH: A B C♯ D 5 4 3 2 2 3 4 5

Mix-up the activities as follows:

• Play each scale in ascending and descending forms.
• Sing as you play.
• Play the major scale in keys through 2 sharps and 2 flats.
• Play two notes, then sing the next two, playing the following two, etc.
• Jump immediately to any scale degree in a scale.

### Exercise K Playing major scales derived from non-tonic pitches

Construct the major scale derived from the scale-degree function of the given pitch. For example, given the pitch G and 5^, you count down five scale degrees to C and then play a C major scale.

 given pitch: C F♯ A B E B D C♯ B♭ given scale degree: 4^ 3^ 7^ 4^ 3^ 3^ 3^ 7^ 3^

### Exercise L Sing and Play

Continue the scale degree patterns below until you return to the tonic. Alternate playing and singing such that you begin a pattern by playing it, then sing the first repetition, then play again, and so on until the end. Use scale degrees or fixed do solfège when you sing. Be able to transpose the patterns to major keys up to two flats or two sharps.

 1. 1^ - 2^ - 3^, 2^ - 3^ - 4^, 3^ - 4^ - 5^, … 2. 1^ - 7^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^, 2^ - 1^ - 2^ - 3^ - 4^, 3^ - 2^ - 3^ - 4^ - 5^, … 3. 1^ - 3^ - 2^ - 1^, 2^ - 4^ - 3^ - 2^, 3^ - 5^ - 4^ - 3^, … 4. 3^ - 4^ - 3^ - 2^ - 1^, 4^ - 5^ - 4^ - 3^ - 2^, 5^ - 6^ - 5^ - 4^ - 3^, … 5. 1^ - 3^ - 5^ - 2^ - 1^, 2^ - 4^ - 6^ - 3^ - 2^, 3^ - 5^ - 7^ - 4^ - 3^, …

### Exercise M Keyboard: Sing and play

Perform the exercises as required. Use your right hand to play in the treble clef and the left hand to play in the bass clef. Since the piano part guides what you will then sing, listen carefully as you play.

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## Listening

### Exercise N Half v. whole steps

Determine whether the two pitches that you hear lie a half step or a whole step from one another. You may wish to listen in terms of function: a half step relationship will sound like leading tone to tonic (7^- 8^) or vice versa. A whole step relationship will sound like the beginning ascent of a scale (1^-2^) or the ending descent (2^-1^). Identify using "H" or "W".

 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. ___ 9. ___ 10. ___

### Exercise O

You will hear melodic fragments. Circle the score that corresponds with what was played.

### Exercise P Melodic Dictation

Notate scale degree numbers for the major-mode melodic fragments. Listen to the entire melody and be able to sing: a) the tonic and b) the entire fragment. Then, use scale degree numbers to represent the pitches. For Examples 1 throught 5, 1^ is played before you hear the example. For Examples 6 through 8, you must determine 1^ based on the musical context.

 1. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 5. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 6. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 7. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 8. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

### Exercise Q Correction

The notated melodies below contain one or more errors. Listen to the recording, then re-write the melody correctly.

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## Writing

### Exercise R Writing Scales

Notate the following major scales on manuscript paper. Use accidentals (instead of key signatures) and mark each half and whole step. Begin by writing the first scale (B major) in bass clef and the next in treble clef. Continue alternating clefs for each scale.

 D (sample solution): 1. B♭ 2. E♭ 3. G 4. B 5. E 6. D♭

### Exercise S Writing Scales

Write the following scales on manuscript paper, using accidentals instead of key signatures.
1. The major scale in which:

 G♯ is 3^ (sample solution):
 A. C is 4^ B. G♯ is 6^ C. C♯ is 6^ D. B♭ is 2^ E. B♭ is 4^ F. B♭ is 7^

2. The major scale in which:

 A. A is supertonic B. D is mediant C. F is submediant D. B is dominant E. E is supertonic F. E is subdominant

### Exercise T Writing Scale Fragments

Study each scale fragment below and determine in which major scales the fragments could be members; write out the complete scales and include scale degrees. For example, given the fragment A and B and the instruction to list the major scales to which the pitches belong, the answer would be F major and B major. List as many major scales as would fit each fragment.

 1. D - E 2. A - B 3. C - D♭ 4. G - C♯ 5. Eb - G

### Exercise U Scale practice: Error detection

Below are misspelled major scales; correct the errors by adding the appropriate accidentals and/or pitches.

### Exercise V Key signatures and the circle of fifths

1. Write the following key signatures from memory:

 1. A major 2. E♭ major 3. D major 4. B major

2. Instead of representing major keys and their key signatures using the circle of fifths, write the pitch "A" and create a "line of fifths" by rising fifths (to the right of the A) and falling fifths (to the left of the A). Include the number of sharps and flats found in each major key.

etc. ← D ← A → E → etc.

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